HOSE WHO STUDY music history enjoying finding early uses of more modern chords. Giovanni Gabrieli used the Major-Minor Seventh chord. (Orlando di Lasso did as well, though infrequently.) In this remarkable motet by Francisco Guerrero, written circa 1555AD, Guerrero uses a 2-1 suspension in measure 33. We know it’s not a mistake, because the line in question is a perfect canon with the voice above it:
Click here to read the full text, from John 17: 1-3. Guerrero’s setting in many ways reflects the text, which is quite powerful. It is the only part of Scripture I know where our Lord refers to Himself as “Jesus Christ.”
JESUS CHRIST is God, in spite of the heretical teachings of Arius. The Council of Nicaea formulated a Creed all Catholics know—after Arius was given a chance to make his arguments—and also formulated (according to many accounts) twenty canons, which are summarized as:
Canon 1: On the admission, or support, or expulsion of clerics mutilated by choice or by violence.
Canon 2: Rules to be observed for ordination, the avoidance of undue haste, the deposition of those guilty of a grave fault.
Canon 3: All members of the clergy are forbidden to dwell with any woman, except a mother, sister, or aunt.
Canon 4: Concerning episcopal elections.
Canon 5: Concerning the excommunicate.
Canon 6: Concerning patriarchs and their jurisdiction.
Canon 7: confirms the right of the bishops of Jerusalem to enjoy certain honors.
Canon 8: concerns the Novatians.
Canon 9: Certain sins known after ordination involve invalidation.
Canon 10: Lapsi who have been ordained knowingly or surreptitiously must be excluded as soon as their irregularity is known.
Canon 11: Penance to be imposed on apostates of the persecution of Licinius.
Canon 12: Penance to be imposed on those who upheld Licinius in his war on the Christians.
Canon 13: Indulgence to be granted to excommunicated persons in danger of death.
Canon 14: Penance to be imposed on catechumens who had weakened under persecution.
Canon 15: Bishops, priests, and deacons are not to pass from one church to another.
Canon 16: All clerics are forbidden to leave their church. Formal prohibition for bishops to ordain for their diocese a cleric belonging to another diocese.
Canon 17: Clerics are forbidden to lend at interest.
Canon 18: recalls to deacons their subordinate position with regard to priests.
Canon 19: Rules to be observed with regard to adherents of Paul of Samosata who wished to return to the Church.
Canon 20: On Sundays and during the Paschal season prayers should be said standing.
I am by no means an expert on this period of history, but I don’t believe St. Athanasius was allowed to attend the Council of Nicaea because he was only a deacon at that time.